Today’s vehicles have two types of steering: Hydraulic Power and Electric Power.
Hydraulic power steering uses high pressure fluids for assisting the steering movement. It uses a plunger type arrangement for its working. When the driver turns the steering wheel, it opens up the flow or pressurized fluid in such a way that helps to turns the wheels in the required direction. The power from the engine pressurizes the hydraulic fluid. This type of steering requires routine maintenance to maintain clean power steering fluid, free of deposits and corrosion which can cause damage to the steering pump.
Electric power steering works with the help of an Electric Motor and a control unit which has sensors. The motor runs on a battery and will use electric power to assist the movement of steering when the driver turns the wheel. It is believed that electric power steering is more fuel efficient because its powered from electricity and not the vehicle engine power pressurizing fluid. Maintenance for electric steering may require computer programming to update software and computer diagnostic to repair problems.
Newer vehicles which have electric power steering include: Hyundai Elantra, Chevrolet Cobalt, Chevrolet Malibu, Honda Civic, Toyota Corolla, Ford Focus, BMW 1,2,3, and some 5 series models.